Wednesday, December 30, 2015

ALL ABOUT VITAMINS, MINERALS AND SUPPLEMENTS



In general the way to get crucial vitamins and minerals is through healthy 
foods, so for a completely well-nourished person, supplements may be a 
waste of money. But for people over age 50, even the best diet may not provide 
enough of some important nutrients. 
Use this information to explore details about the Vitamins, Minerals and 
Supplements that are most important and specially as you grow older for 
people over 50. 
Supplements may cause side effects. If you have certain diseases, such as 
cancer or diabetes, your body may have special nutritional needs. Be sure 
to talk to your doctor about the vitamins and supplements you take. 
____________________________________ 
Vitamins 
1.1 Vitamin A 
1.2 Vitamin B1 (thiamin) 
1.3 Vitamin B2 (riboflavin) 
1.4 Vitamin B3 (niacin) 
1.5 Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) 
1.6 Vitamin B12 
1.7 Vitamin C 
1.8 Vitamin D 
1.9 Vitamin E 
1.10 Folic acid 
1.11 Vitamin K 
[2] MINERALS 
2.1 Calcium 
2.2 Chromium 
2.3 IODINE 
2.4 IRON 
2.5 Magnesium 
2.6 Potassium 
2.7 Selenium 
2.8 Zinc 
[3] Supplements 
3.1 Omega-3 fatty acids 
3.2 Echinacea 
3.3 Ginkgo 
3.4 Ginseng 
____________________________________ 
[1] Vitamins 
____________________________________ 
Vitamin A 
How much? 
Men: 900 mcg 
Women: 700 mcg 
Why you need it: 
Promotes good vision; helps keep immune system healthy. 
Good to know: 
In supplements, look for vitamin A as beta carotene, not as retinol or 
retinoic acid, which increases the risk of bone fracture. 
Food sources: 
Dairy products, fish, darkly colored fruits and vegetables. 
____________________________________ 
Vitamin B1 (thiamin) 
How much? 
Men: 1.2 mg 
Women: 1.1 mg 
Why you need it: 
Necessary for healthy nerve and brain cells; helps convert food to energy. 
Good to know: 
Antacids and some diuretics may lower thiamin levels by decreasing 
absorption and increasing urinary secretion. 
Food sources: 
Liver, whole grains, enriched breads and cereals. 
____________________________________ 
Vitamin B2 (riboflavin) 
How much? 
Men: 1.3 mg 
Women: 1.1 mg 
Why you need it: 
Important for red blood cell production; helps convert food to energy. 
Good to know: 
Older men and women may be especially susceptible to riboflavin 
deficiency, which can cause cracking or sores at the corners of the mouth, skin 
irritation or weakness. 
Food sources: 
milk, eggs, fortified bread products and cereals. 
____________________________________ 
Vitamin B3 (niacin) 
How much? 
Men: 16 mg 
Women: 14 mg 
Why you need it: 
Necessary for proper functioning of the digestive system, skin and nerves; 
helps convert food to energy. 
Good to know: 
Can cause skin flushing; may be prescribed to treat high cholesterol but 
should be used only under a doctor's care because of potentially severe side
effects. 
Food sources: 
Meat, fish, poultry, eggs. 
____________________________________ 
Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) 
How much? 
Men: 1.7 mg 
Women: 1.5 mg 
Why you need it: Aids in the formation of red blood cells; strengthens the 
immune system. 
Good to know: Too high doses of supplements may cause nerve damage, 
numbness and trouble walking. 
Food sources: Beans, nuts, eggs, whole grains. 
____________________________________ 
Vitamin B12 
How much? 
Men and women: 2.4 mcg 
Why you need it: Essential for keeping nerves and red blood cells healthy. 
Good to know: As many as a third of people over 50 do not absorb enough 
B12 from diet alone; inadequate absorption may lead to neurological and 
balance problems. 
Food sources: Fish, shellfish, meat, dairy products. 
____________________________________ 
Vitamin C 
How much? 
Men: 90 mg 
Women: 75 mg 
(Smokers should add an extra 35 mg) 
Why you need it: 
Important for wound healing; boosts immune system; required for growth and 
repair of tissues in all parts of body. 
Good to know: 
No studies confirm vitamin C prevents colds although it may shorten the 
length of a cold; excessive amounts may lead to upset stomach and diarrhea. 
Food sources: 
Citrus fruits, tomatoes, kiwi, strawberries. 
____________________________________ 
Vitamin D 
How much? 
Ages 51-70: 400 IU (10 mcg) 
Age 71+: 600 IU (15 mcg) 
Why you need it: Helps the body absorb calcium; may protect against heart
disease, cancer, diabetes and several autoimmune diseases. 
Good to know: The current recommendation is under review and may soon 
increase substantially.
Food sources: Sun exposure provides the body's main supply of vitamin D; 
fatty fish, fortified milk and juices also contribute. 
____________________________________ 
Vitamin E 
How much? 
Men and women: 15 mg 
Why you need it: 
Helps protect cells from damage; may reduce the risk of developing cancer, 
heart disease and other chronic diseases, but further research is needed. 
Good to know: 
If you take a blood thinner, talk to your doctor before taking supplements; 
vitamin E increases bleeding risk. 
Food sources: 
Vegetable oils, nuts, fruits, vegetables. 
____________________________________ 
Folic acid 
How much? 
Men and women: 
400 mcg 
Why you need it: 
This B vitamin helps form red blood cells and produce DNA. 
Good to know: 
High levels may mask vitamin B12 deficiency, especially in older adults. 
Recent research, suggests that for women, folic acid along with vitamins B6
and B12 may reduce the risk of developing age-related macular degeneration. 
Food sources: 
Enriched cereals, whole-grain breads, dark, leafy vegetables. 
____________________________________ 
Vitamin K 
How much? 
Men: 120 mcg 
Women: 90 mcg 
Why you need it: Helps blood clot properly and helps maintain strong bones
in older men and women. 
Good to know: Can dilute the effect of blood thinners, so talk to your 
doctor if you take Coumadin (warfarin) or other blood thinners. 
Food sources: Plant oils, green vegetables, cabbage, cauliflower. 
____________________________________ 
[2] MINERALS 
Calcium 
How much? 
Men and women: 1200 mg 
Why you need it: Helps form and maintain healthy teeth and bones; needed 
for normal heartbeat; helps with blood clotting. 
Good to know: The body needs vitamin D to help absorb calcium, so if you 
use calcium supplements choose one that contains D. Recent studies have 
linked calcium pills to increased risk of heart attack. 
Food sources: Dairy products, green leafy vegetables, bok choy, 
calcium-fortified orange juice. 
____________________________________ 
Chromium 
How much? 
Men: 30 mcg 
Women: 20 mcg 
Why you need it: Helps maintain normal blood sugar levels. 
Good to know: There has been interest in treating high glucose levels and 
type 2 diabetes with supplemental chromium, but research to date is 
inconclusive. 
Food sources: Meat, chicken, broccoli, apples, fish, grape juice. 
____________________________________ 
Iodine 
How much? 
Men and women: 150 mcg 
Why you need it: 
Necessary for normal thyroid function; prevents goiter, a swelling of the 
thyroid gland. 
Good to know: 
Deficiency occurs more often in women than men; when buying salt, choose
one labeled "iodized." 
Food sources: Seafood, iodized salt. 
____________________________________ 
Iron 
How much? 
Men and women: 8 mg 
Why you need it: 
Essential for healthy red blood cells. 
Good to know: 
Men and women over 50 generally should not take a mutivitamin containing 
iron unless they have been diagnosed with iron deficiency. 
Food sources: 
Meat, eggs, fortified bread and grain products. 
____________________________________ 
Magnesium 
How much? 
Men: 420 mg 
Women: 320 mg 
Why you need it: 
Supports a healthy immune system; helps keep bones strong; regulates heart 
rhythm. 
Good to know: Magnesium-rich foods may help protect against the 
development of type 2 diabetes; may also decrease the risk of high blood pressure in 
women. 
Food sources: Whole grains, nuts, green vegetables. 
____________________________________ 
Potassium 
How much? 
Men and women: 4700 mg 
Why you need it: 
Crucial for heart, kidney, muscle, nerve function; important in 
controlling blood pressure; works with sodium to maintain the body's water balance. 
Good to know: 
With age, kidneys become less able to remove potassium from blood, so 
speak with your doctor before taking supplements. A diet rich in fruits and 
vegetables generally provides sufficient potassium. 
Food sources: 
Cantaloupe, bananas, yogurt, leafy green vegetables and sweet potatoes. 
____________________________________ 
Selenium 
How much? 
Men and women: 55 mcg 
Why you need it: 
Helps make special proteins that play a role in preventing cell damage. 
Good to know: 
May reduce the risk of certain cancers, including lung, colorectal and 
prostate, although not all studies have found this effect. 
Food sources: 
Red meat, fish, chicken, vegetables. 
____________________________________ 
Zinc 
How much? 
Men: 11 mg 
Women: 8 mg 
Why you need it: 
Aids in wound healing; keeps sense of smell and taste sharp. 
Good to know: 
Many people take zinc to ease the miseries of a common cold, but its 
effect is controversial; some studies suggest zinc can speed recovery, others 
conclude it doesn't work. Some studies show that taking a combination of 
antioxidants and zinc reduces the risk of advanced _age-related macular 
degeneration. 
Food sources: 
Fortified cereals, red meat, eggs, seafood. 
____________________________________ 
[3] SUPPLEMENTS 
Omega-3 fatty acids 
What does it do: 
Important for blood clotting, cell division, relaxation and contraction of 
muscles. 
Good to know: 
The omega-3 fatty acids plentiful in fatty fish and fish oil supplements 
have built a powerful reputation for reducing the risk of a second heart 
attack. Studies on fish oil and memory have had mixed results. May interact 
with blood thinners. 
____________________________________ 
Echinacea 
What does it do: 
This native American plant may reduce the duration of a cold. 
Good to know: 
Study results are mixed about whether it can prevent colds and other 
infections. 
____________________________________ 
Ginkgo 
What does it do: 
Derived from the oldest living tree species, ginkgo extract improves 
walking in people with certain circulatory problems that affect the legs. 
Good to know: 
Research on ginkgo's effect on Alzheimer's and memory loss has been 
disappointing. Ginkgo can increase bleeding risk, so talk to your doctor if you 
take blood thinners or have surgery scheduled. 
____________________________________ 
Ginseng (file://dineshvoravitamins/) 
What does it do: 
The root of this plant appears to benefit people with heart disorders. It 
may also lower blood glucose levels in people with type 2 diabetes. 
Good to know: 
People with diabetes should use caution with ginseng, especially if they 
are taking medication to lower blood glucose.

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